American Association of Blind Teachers

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Math or statistics, because of their highly visual nature, are especially difficult for most blind or visually impaired students and teachers. It is hard to find sites devoted to these topics that are truly accessible for the visitor with limited vision. The ones below, however, are more accessible than the average.

Math

Math.com
You’ll find lesson plans and homework help for "everyday math, pre-algebra, Algebra 1 and 2, linear algebra, geometry, trigonometry, calculus, and more advanced topics. In addition, the site features, a glossary, calculator, formulas, study tips, help in test preparation, and more. The site is well-organized with links that are easy to follow. Searchable.

Math Homework Help
Doing math homework can now be quicker, easier, and more effective than ever before. This site shows step-by-step explanations for the actual homework problems in math textbooks (odd-numbered problems only). The tutorial solutions with answers cover middle school math through algebra, geometry, and calculus.

Illustrated Mathematics Dictionary
"Easy-to-understand definitions, with illustrations and links to further reading. Start browsing the definitions using the letters, or use the Search function. This dictionary is appropriate for elementary and middle school students.

The Eisenhower National Clearing House
This site provides K-12 teachers with a central source of information on mathematics and science curriculum materials.

The Math Projects Journal
This site is a companion to a print publication that offers "tips and lesson plans for interactive math projects." The site provides about a dozen of these lesson plans for free in the areas of pre-algebra, algebra, and geometry. Also includes links to related sites.

Design Science
For mathematicians, math students, and teachers who are blind, a collaboration between ViewPlus Technologies and Design Science sounds like good news. Using the Tiger Software Suite from ViewPlus and a Tiger Braille embosser, along with MathType from Design Science, the new option makes it possible to create custom math documents in Microsoft Word. Users can insert equations from MathType into a Word document, add desired text and graphics, and translate the document to Braille in one easy step. Equations appear in both Braille and ink, allowing sighted readers to follow along. The documents can then be embossed using a Tiger embosser for high-resolution tactile output. Translation to the Nemeth code is available.

The Internet Scout Report: Math, Engineering, and Technology
This is one of the best sites on the Web for up-to-date information covering Industrial Engineering, Calculus, Algebra, Geometry, Civil Engineering, Applied Mathematics, Environmental Engineering, Computer Sciences, and related topics.

MathTools
This site offers hundreds of math lesson plans, learning activities, and stories for kindergarten through grade 7, and for algebra, geometry, calculus, and probability and statistics. Specific topics include estimation; fractions; fractals; tessellations; platonic solids; and much more. The site is both searchable and browsable. Registration required.

Practical Uses of Math and Science
features more than 60 examples of how science and math can be used in interesting settings and everyday life. Topics include: clouds (why they float); social security benefits (algebra); Pythagorean theorem (cabinet corners); ice sheets and sea level; logarithms; matching birthdays (statistics); natural selection and a scavenger hunt; photons; traffic signals (probability); seasons (causes); volcanic clouds; and wind chill (algebra). From The National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

The Internet Public Library: Mathematics
Like other parts of the IPL, this is an excellent, accessible, site which is extremely easy to navigate. The mathematics page includes sections on algebra, calculators and tables, geometry and trigonometry, probability and statistics, and calculus and topics in advanced math. Searchable and browsable.

The Math Forum - Ask Dr. Math
Ask Dr. Math is a question and answer service for math students and their teachers. A searchable archive is available by level and topic, as well as summaries of Frequently Asked Questions. Students submit questions to Dr. Math by filling out a Web form. Answers are sent back by e-mail, with the best questions and answers placed in a searchable archive organized by grade level (elementary, middle school, high school) and topic (exponents, infinity, polynomials, etc.).

Illuminations
Designed to improve the teaching and learning of mathematics. Offers interactive lessons for students, lesson plans for teachers, and math applets, all arranged by grade level. Includes a large collection of Web resources, arranged by concept and grade, and the standards for teaching math. From the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM). The site is excellent but much of its usefulness is lost if you are not able to see featured materials.

allmath.com - math site for kids! Home of flashcards, math biographies and Ask The Experts
Math games, flash cards, a math glossary, metric conversion tools, and biographies of notable math-related people are presented in a useful, interactive format designed primarily for children. Links to other math Web sites are included. The site is probably of most use for children who have some vision, however.

World of Math Online
This is an extremely valuable site which will be equally useful for the teacher, parent, or student. Links include homework; glossary; ask an expert; calculators and tools; basic math; everyday math; pre-algebra; algebra; geometry; trigonometry; statistics; calculus; and advanced topics.

Computer Science
An annotated collection of links arranged by category. Included are dictionaries, encyclopedias, electronic journals, algorithm collections, associations, organization, societies, programming languages, courses, tutorials, employment, and much more. Some items are only accessible through the University of Albany.

Units of Measurement
Americans probably use a greater variety of units of measurement than anyone else in the world. Caught in a slow-moving transition from customary to metric units, we employ a fascinating and sometimes frustrating mixture of units in talking about the same things. We measure the length of a race in meters, but the length of the long jump event in feet and inches. We speak of an engine's power in horsepower and its displacement in liters. In the same dispatch, we describe a hurricane's wind speed in knots and its central pressure in millibars. This dictionary, put together by Russ Rowlett, the Director of the Center for Mathematics and Science Education at the University of North Carolina Chapel Hill, will help you learn more about units of measurement.

Teaching Math to Young Children
"This is one of a series of webpages to help students understand math, and to help parents teach their children math -- especially to help children have a good foundation." The author of this site says, "My training is in philosophy and I use a conceptual and analytic approach to teach math." Most appropriate for children from grades 3-12.

Computer Science
An annotated collection of links arranged by category. Included are dictionaries, encyclopedias, electronic journals, algorithm collections, associations, organization, societies, programming languages, courses, tutorials, employment, and much more. From the University at Albany Libraries. This is a site for the computer professional.

Math Resources: Algebra, Geometry, Basic Math, Pre-Caculus, Differential Equations, Calculus and More
This is an excellent article with links to a variety of math-related web sites, ranging from what would be covered in the early elementary grades to college. The annotations are clear and concise. Because the site is designed for a general audience, there will, of necessity, be material that is highly visual and may not be of use to someone using a screen-reader. Nonetheless, its thoroughness recommends it to anyone looking for online assistance in math.

Math in Daily Life
"When you buy a car, follow a recipe, or decorate your home, you're using math principles. People have been using these same principles for thousands of years, across countries and continents. Whether you're sailing a boat off the coast of Japan or building a house in Peru, you're using math to get things done." Highly readable lessons on population growth, retirement calculation, shopping, gambling, and more. From the Annenberg Foundation.

Mathway: Math Problem Solver
"Free step-by-step math solver answers your pre-algebra, algebra, geometry, trigonometry, and calculus homework problems."

Complete List of Online Math Resources
"The Internet has produced dozens of math resources to help you, whether you need assistance with basic math for a younger audience, algebra, or differential equations. [This siste provides] a list of some valuable time-saving math resources covering the gamut of subjects from fractions to calculus. [The resources] include explanations, sample problems and solutions, practice tests, diagrams and flowcharts, and even games. If improving your math skills is your goal, this is a great place to begin." While much of this material is highly visual and may pose some serious problems in terms of accessibility, the overall quality of the site still makes it worth a visit.

A Calculus with Applications
"This is an undergraduate course on differential calculus [offered by MIT Open Courseware]. It is intended as a one and a half term course in calculus for students who have studied calculus in high school. The format allows it to be entirely self contained, so that it is possible to follow it without any background in calculus.

Online Math Calculators
It is hard to find online calculators that are accessible and truly easy to manipulate and read for a blind or visually impaired user. This site, however, is an exception. Beside some calculators that are either designed primarily for fun or for a nonacademic audience, there are calculators of practical value to students and teachers. Some of the most helpful calculate body mass index; international times; energy use; wind chill; temperature (Fahrenheit, Celsius, Kelvin); metric units; prime numbers; grade point average; and features of elements in the periodic table.

BlindMath
"The best and most useful items from the Blindmath Archives" are collected on this site. It is an excellent source of questions and answers regarding math and statistics posted by blind users themselves. Some of the topic areas include calculators, geometry, graphing, iOS, statistics, students, tools, and transcription. "Each of these topics contains a linked list of subjects (threads of queries and responses) from the archives." The authors acknowledge that they have "attempted to select items that would have the broadest general interest. This means that subjects on more advanced topics may not appear in these gems.

Statistics

Robert Niles' Journalism Help: Finding Data on the Internet
This site provides the basics for interpreting the most common types of statistics found on the Internet. It, then, guides the visitor to the best sites for locating the raw data. If you are comfortable with statistics, you can skip the explanatory material, but you will still find the site a useful time saver.

Explore GovDocs
This site is a meta-index to statistical web sites and individual statistical publications arranged by broad subject categories from the University of Michigan Documents Center.

Sample Size Calculator - Confidence Level, Confidence Interval, Sample Size, Population Size, Relevant Population - Creative Research Systems
Want to take a survey but not sure how many responses to collect? This calculator gives you the number for any given population size and desired confidence level. A reverse calculator lets you enter characteristics of an existing survey and gives the confidence interval (plus-or-minus number) to apply to the results. This site, sponsored by a survey software company, also gives clear explanations of statistical significance, survey design, and related concepts.

VassarStats
An excellent site with information on probabilities, distributions, frequency data, proportions, ordinal data, correlations, regression analysis, T-tests, ANOVA, ANCOVA, and a great deal more.

American Psychological Society - Teaching Resources – Statistics
An excellent collection of links to some of the very best sites devoted to statistics of use to the student or researcher in social science. Topics covered include computational probability, inferential statistics, quantitative statistics, regression analysis, interactive programs, a glossary, a collection of statistical calculators, as well as texts and other web resources.

Census Bureau
"As the nation's largest statistical agency, [this] website provides a vital national resource. These pages contain a wealth of statistical information about the nation's people and its economy - information that is used by the general public and researchers, as well as federal, state, and local governments, in making important decisions. [The] website also provides information about the surveys . . . " that are conducted and the information that results.

FedStats
"FedStats, which has been available to the public since 1997, provides access to the full range of official statistical information produced by the Federal Government without having to know in advance which Federal agency produces which particular statistic. With convenient searching and linking capabilities to more than 100 agencies that provide data and trend information on such topics as economic and population trends, crime, education, health care, aviation safety, energy use, farm production and more, FedStats is your one location for access to the full breadth of Federal statistical information." You can locate information through the alphabetical index, browsing program categories, searching by agency, using the conventional search capacity, or checking daily press releases.

American Fact Finder: U.S. Census Bureau
"American FactFinder is your source for population, housing, economic and geographic data from Census 2000, the 1990 Decennial Census, the 1997 and 2002 Economic Censuses, the American Community Survey, and the Population Estimates Program."

Stats about All U.S. Cities
"Rankings in hundreds of categories, such as income, crime, most gay couples, most cars, shortest commute, biggest houses, best educated residents, and many more. Also, see the original Top 100 City Lists." Information may be browsed by state or all cities with populations over 6,000.

Statisticians in History
"Here you will find biographies on some of the most accomplished statisticians in history. Also featured are papers written by some of these statisticians." Covers individuals such as Ada Byron, Lady Lovelace, "one of the most picturesque characters in computer history," and Florence Nightingale, who was a math tutor before she became a nurse and who "invented colorful polar-area diagrams to dramatize medical data." From the American Statistical Association.

Resources for Teaching Math

Because of its highly visual nature, learning math is frequently very difficult for visually impaired students. Some of the following links, however, will help make the process easier.

Richard Baldwin, Professor of Computer Information Technology at Austin Community College has developed several classes on more advanced topics in math which have been specifically created to be accessible for visually impaired students. They include
Introduction to Accessible Physics Concepts
and
Math Game Theory

"The following three sites provides definitions, brief explanations and exercises for Algebraic and geometrical concepts. Besides main topics, the math exercises are also accessible for screen reader users. At the end of every section, use the 'new problem' button to generate lesson based problems. You have to arrow down the button to read the problem. Use the 'check your answer' button to generate answers to the problems. You have to arrow down the button to read the solution." These are some of the very few sites of quality relating to math that offer reasonable accessability.

You may also want to visit our page on
Specialized Tools for Math and Science,
which provides a number of links to tools and techniques that will be of value for the student taking more advanced courses in math or statistics and the math that is associated with physics, chemistry, etc.

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