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The links on this page lead to sites that are intended for students from elementary grades to graduate school as well as their teachers. There is a disproportionate amount of information online about history, so this page only touches on a very small part of these available resources.

American History

The History Channel
Here you can find historical information and learning activities for all ages. The site, however, has more than the usual amount of advertising that is annoying to negotiate with a screen reader. You can, however, take advantage of the channel’s audios and videos. you can access videos of President McKinley’s inauguration, the funeral of President Kennedy, the breaking of the sound barrier, and the launch of the space shuttle Columbia. This is an extensive, free collection of some of the best of the network’s programming. The audio and video on this site stream in Windows Media Player so you shouldn't need any new software. The site is both searchable and browsable.

The American 1890s: A Chronology
Information and a chronology about "personalities; social, political, literary, economic, cultural events, art, music, and architecture of the decade." Divided into individual years, it includes information about Edward Bellamy, Jacob Reese, Emily Dickenson, Stephen Crane, and others' works, the Johnstown Pennsylvania Flood, the massacre at Wounded Knee Creek, the Homestead Strike, John Philip Sousa and Scott Joplin's impact on American music, the Supreme Court decision of Plessy vs. Ferguson, and more.

Abolitionism in America
A well-organized, content-rich site from Cornell University with a wide range of authoritative information. Includes profiles of prominent abolitionists, slave narratives, background on the Emancipation Proclamation and the 13th Amendment, critical resources on Harriet Beecher Stowe's "Uncle Tom's Cabin," and much more.

Reading, Writing, and Researching for History: A Guide for College Students
This extensive guide to writing history papers is divided "into several categories: reading, writing, researching, and evaluating"; some topics about thesis writing are covered in depth in several different sections. This is an excellent site, but it does take an uncommonly long time to load.

History Matters: The US History Survey Course on the Web
Created by scholars at the City University of New York and George Mason University, the site is intended for high school and college teachers and students and is meant to serve as a gateway to web resources as well as to offer other useful materials for teaching U.S. history. You will find syllabi for teaching history, guidance on how to do historical research, examples of student work in history, and numerous annotated sites. Searchable and browsable.

The Internet Public Library provides an outstanding and accessible compendium of excellent sources on
Colonial History
U.S. Civil War History
Immigration in the United States
World War One History
World War Two History
In addition,
IPL Pathfinders
are home-grown guides written by the staff of the Internet Public Library which are intended to help you get started doing research on a particular topic, both online and at your local library. They are like having your own private librarian to help you with your research. In addition to the links above, Pathfinders are available for the following subject areas in American history: United States government documents; United States Presidential information; African-Americans in the Armed Forces; clothing from various eras; historical photographs; history of books and printing; military history; New York City history; and student movements in the sixties. More topics are constantly being added.

19th Century American Culture
In 1800, everyday life had changed little since the year 1000. Yet, by 1900 the Industrial Revolution had transformed the world's economy. Browse your way through each decade. Then visit the suggested links for more information. The intention is to offer an overview of the century in a 'semi-essay' form and to let the links provided take users even further.

Presidents of the United States (POTUS)
In this resource you will find background information, election results, cabinet members, notable events, and some points of interest on each of the presidents. Links to biographies, historical documents, audio and video files, and other presidential sites are also included. If you don’t know which president you are interested in, there are name and subject indexes located at the bottom of the home page.

Presidents of the United States: Resource Guides
The presidential resource guides compile digital materials that are available throughout the Library’s Web site. Although this means that much of the material on this site is not accessible to a screen reader, each resource guide does provides links to external Web sites and a bibliography containing selected works for both a general audience and younger readers. This site will be updated on a regular basis. From the Library of Congress.

The Great Depression
Questions and answers about the Great Depression, "a severe, world-wide economic disintegration symbolized in the United States by the stock market crash on 'Black Thursday', October 24, 1929." Topics include the unemployment rate during the Great Depression, Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal program and its "alphabet agencies," and related material about the Great Depression. From the Franklin D. Roosevelt Presidential Library and Museum.

The Vietnam Center and Archive
This center's mission "is to support and encourage research and education regarding all aspects of the American Vietnam experience; promoting a greater understanding of this experience and the peoples and cultures of Southeast Asia." While the site features a virtual archive with over 2.7 million pages of scanned materials including "documents, photographs, slides, negatives, artifacts, moving images, sound recordings, and maps, the visually-impaired visitor is likely to be most interested in the
Oral History Interviews
and the
Resources for Teachers.
From the Institute for Modern Conflict, Diplomacy and Reconciliation, Texas Tech University.

Creating the United States
"This exhibition offers a remarkable opportunity to learn in a fresh new way how the [U.S.] founding documents . . . were forged out of insight, invention, and creativity, as well as collaboration and much compromise." Includes interactive features that "reveal the source documents and the careful crafting of language" in
Creating the Declaration of Independence
The United States Constitution
as well as
The Bill of Rights.
Also provides related links. From the Library of Congress.

Past Convention Coverage
News and photo essays on the Republican and Democratic presidential nominating conventions for 1896 -1996. The first Democratic national nominating convention was held in 1832. "The Republicans' first convention as a national party was held in 1856." Covers conventions such as the 1968 Democratic convention in Chicago with its Vietnam War protesters, and the 1924 Democratic convention in which the candidate was not selected until the 103rd ballot, a record. From The New York Times.

Saluting America's Veterans
This site provides remembrances by veterans and their families about American war experiences. Includes material about World War I, World War II, and wars in Korea, Vietnam, the Persian Gulf, Afghanistan, and Iraq. Some stories include photos. From American Profile, a weekly magazine carried in smaller newspapers across the country.

Psychedelic '60s
Information about the social movements of the 1960s in the United States, with emphasis on the literature of the period. Features articles and images on the Beats, Ken Kesey and the Merry Pranksters, Timothy Leary, the Black Mountain Poets, hippies, Woodstock, illicit drugs, protests, and much more. From the University of Virginia Library.

John F. Kennedy and the Cuban Missile Crisis
This presentation looks at the events of the Cuban Missile Crisis, which started when, in "October 1962, a U.S. spy plane secretly photographed nuclear missile sites being built by the Soviet Union on the island of Cuba." Text and recordings provide history of the conflict, which could have resulted in nuclear war, and its resolution and aftermath. Includes a link to a related exhibit. From the John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum.

Signers of the Declaration of Independence
This series of essays covers topics related to the signing of the Declaration of Independence, including historic sites and buildings associated with the signing, and biographical sketches of the signers of the Declaration, such as John Adams, Samuel Adams, Benjamin Franklin, John Hancock, and Thomas Jefferson. Provides text and history of the Declaration and suggested reading. Based on a book that was issued by the National Park Service in observance of the U.S. bicentennial.

Monkey Trial
Companion to an American Experience documentary about the 1925 "Scopes monkey trial" of "a biology teacher named John Scopes [who] was arrested for teaching evolution in defiance of Tennessee state law." This was the first live radio broadcast of a trial in the U.S. Website features include material about speeches from attorneys Clarence Darrow and William Jennings Bryan, political cartoons, and profiles of people and events (such as H.L. Mencken and the Jazz Age).

The Stock Market Crash of 1929
Concise summary of the U.S. stock market crash of 1929, including the events leading up to the crash and the effect of the crash on the economy. Also includes links to interviews with two history professors about the 1929 crash and related topics. From the Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) special program "The First Measured Century."

The Great Influenza Epidemic of 1918
This site explores the influenza epidemic that killed more than 600,000 Americans and between 20 and 40 million people worldwide. Includes reflections about the pandemic and its epidemiology, a pathologist's analysis of whether the same type of devastation could occur again, a map showing the spreading of the disease in the U.S., audio files of interviews, a timeline, a teacher's guide, and the epidemic's effects on Boston, Philadelphia, and San Francisco. Based on the 1998 PBS American Experience program.

The Montgomery Bus Boycott
"Sparked by Rosa Parks' arrest on 1 December 1955, the Montgomery bus boycott was an eleven-month mass protest that ended with the U.S. Supreme Court ruling that public bus segregation is unconstitutional." This brief essay discusses the boycott and the events surrounding the act. Includes a bibliography and links to related material. From the Martin Luther King Papers Project, Stanford University.

Temperance and Prohibition
Features sections on the brewing industry, the background of prohibition, the "women's crusade," important figures in the the prohibition movement, and prohibition in the 1920s. From the History Department of the Ohio State University.

The American Revolution: PBS Teacher's Guide
Companion to a Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) documentary series "about the birth of the American Republic and the struggle of a loosely connected group of states to become a nation." Features a timeline (from 1760, when George III ascended the throne, through 1791), details about defining events (such as the Boston Tea Party, 1773, and the Declaration of Independence, 1776), material about daily life and the military in the Colonies, and more.

A Guide to World War I Materials from the Library of Congress
"This guide compiles links to World War I resources throughout the Library of Congress Web site. In addition, this guide provides links to external Web sites focusing on World War I and a bibliography containing selections for both general and younger readers." Resources include photo collections, "Today in History" pages, sheet music, radio broadcasts, and more.

FDR’s Fireside Chats
This lesson plan (grades 9-12) focuses on the impact and appeal of two of Franklin Roosevelt's Fireside Chats. ("The first, 'The Bank Crisis, was given on March 12, 1933, and the second, 'On the New Deal,' was given on May 7, 1933.") Includes suggested activities, and links to audio and transcripts of chats and to related material.

American Heritage Issues from 1954 to the Present
While the online version of American Heritage is only available for a charge, bacArticles from past issues of the magazine are available for free. Although sections of the site are clearly difficult to navigate for a screen-reader, these past articles are quite accessible. A helpful search feature is also available.

Civil War Trust: Civil War Sesquicentennial Home
Focusing on Civil War battlefields and their associated history, this site provides links to
Teacher Resources
Student Resources.
While the site is highly useful, it has a narrow concentration on the preservation of Civil War battlefields. Some sections are a bit busy.

How Much Is That: Economic History Services
"Have you ever wondered what the value of a dollar was in 1895? Or what the GDP was in 1929? Here is a place where you can ask questions of comparative value covering purchasing power, exchange rates, and other variables between the past and today." You can calculate annualized growth rates for the dollar, British pound, Japanese yen, and Chinese yuan over time, value of the US dollar from 1790., comparisons of the British pound from 1830, purchasing power of the dollar from 1774 to the present, purchasing power of the pound from 1264 to the present, inflation rates for the United States since the eighteenth century and Britain since the thirteenth century, and more.

The History of the Supreme Court
"Created by a collaboration of classroom teachers, historians, and legal scholars, the site presents the history of America's highest court within a series of broad themes drawn from the social studies curriculum. Examples include 'The Court and Gender', 'The Court and Young People', and 'The Court Today', which tracks the present changing Court in real time and focuses on the issues now under consideration."

Time Capsule
Want to know what the headlines were on the day you were born? Did newspapers focus on the events history has determined to be significant in a given period? Enter the month, day, and year in the search box for any year between 1800 to the present to find out the answer.

The Crash of 1929
"The Crash of 1929 offers insights into topics in American history including market mechanics, the history of Wall Street, economic forecasting, the zeitgeist of the 1920s, morality and the market, the effect of economic cycles on political trends, the lifestyles of the American elite, and more. Use the film or this Web site to learn more, either in a classroom or on your own. A PBS production.


This site, from the Biography channel, features a search of over 25,000 of the greatest lives, past and present.

Lives, the Biography Resource
This site bills itself as "one of the Web's largest biography collections." The site contains links to thousands of biographies, letters, narratives and more. People are listed alphabetically and in groups of eras and professions. Browse the Special Collections to learn more about African Americans, Women, Holocaust Survivors and Rescuers and Latinos.

Biographical Dictionary
This dictionary covers more than 28,000 notable men and women who have shaped our world from ancient times to the present day.

Huey Long: Every Man a King
Brief background about Huey Long, Governor of Louisiana from 1928 to 1932 and U.S. senator, and his contributions to the development of the Social Security system. Long's "Share Our Wealth" program "wanted the government to confiscate the wealth of the nation's rich . . . [and] to guarantee every family in the nation an annual income." Also includes excerpts from Huey Long's autobiography, and the text of a U.S. Senate speech. From Social Security Online.

Huey Long -- The Man, His Mission, and His Legacy
Material about Huey Long, Louisiana's legendary governor and U.S. Senator who was assassinated in 1935 at the age of 42. Features an illustrated biography, background about his programs to modernize and reform Louisiana. Significant programs included public works, expansion of health care options, and the "Share Our Wealth" proposals, which featured public benefit programs such as old-age pensions.

American Presidents: Resource on U.S. Presidents
Collection of material about U.S. presidents, including "essays about each President and their lives before, during, and after their presidential terms. It additionally provides information about the First Lady and cabinet officials of each administration." From the Miller Center of Public Affairs at the University of Virginia.

Edward R. Murrow
This National Public Radio (NPR) segment looks at the 2004 biography of broadcast journalist Edward R. Murrow, "Edward R. Murrow and the Birth of Broadcast Journalism." Features an interview with the author, a book excerpt, and audio clips from some of Murrow's famous broadcasts (including one with Sen. Joseph McCarthy; the battle between Murrow and McCarthy is the subject of the 2005 film "Good Night, and Good Luck"), and links to related NPR stories and websites.

Patrick Henry
Brief biography of American patriot Patrick Henry. Includes the text and an audio dramatization of his 1775 speech ("Give me liberty or give me death"), and an audio of an interview that addresses "the intensity and passionate character of Patrick Henry." Also find links to related information on topics such as politics in colonial Virginia. From the Colonial Williamsburg Foundation.

Dwight David Eisenhower
Brochure created in 1990 by the U.S. Army on the occasion of the 100th anniversary of Eisenhower's birth. Features an overview of the army career of this soldier who became the 34th president of the United States. Covers his stationing in the U.S. during World War I, his activities as an army general in World War II, and how "Eisenhower presided over the postwar demobilization of that Army."

The Political Graveyard
Billed as "The Internet's Most Comprehensive Source of U.S. Political Biography," you can find brief biographical information on over 200,000 American politicians, judges, and diplomats as well as where they were born, lived, died, offices held or sought, political party affiliation, and where buried. Clear, simple, easy to navigate design.

African-American History

AT&T Knowledge Network Explorer: Black History
This site is a collection of six sites that were designed to suggest ways to integrate the World Wide Web and videoconferencing into classroom learning. Each site features a different format designed to support different kinds of learning. Perhaps
Black History Hotlist
is the most useful portion of the site since it is intended as a starting point for anyone studying African-American events and issues. The site is a collection of links to Internet resources for exploring African-American history. Topics include Black History Month (February), slavery, abolition, The Underground Railroad, "Buffalo" soldiers, civil rights movement, Million Man March, poetry, news, people, and much more. The site requires additional effort for someone using a screen reader to access.

Black Facts Online
Black Facts Online is a large "online database of Black History information." Users can search the database by date (month and day) or keyword for facts.

Association for the Study of African American Life and History
The mission at this site is "to promote, research, preserve, interpret and disseminate information about Black life, history, and culture to the global community." The site contains information on the legacy of the founder, Dr. Carter Godwin Woodson (1875-1950), who established the first Negro History Week, which officially expanded to Black History Month in 1976. Resources include learning resource packages, themes for the years 2002-2010, and more.

African American World – PBS
African American World tries to cover all things Black or African American and does a good job at it. Sections included are history, arts and culture, race and society, and biographical profiles. There is also a timeline of African American history from the 1400s on with links to further PBS readings and programs, a page for children, African American history teaching modules, and pro and con opinions on social issues. Searchable.

The African American Source Book
This is an excellent source for primary historical documents from Fordham University. It is an exceptionally high quality store of information, organized in an easy to locate fashion.

African-American History
This site provides links to information on Jim Crow laws, the Harlem Renaissance, the Civil War, black resources, black history by century, Reconstruction, and much more. Searchable.

African-American History
While this site provides excellent links to information on historical figures, abolitionism, etc., it is especially noteworthy for copies of important texts.

African Americans Seen Through the Eyes of the Newsreel Cameramen
This small digital collection features newsreels of African Americans selected from the period of 1919 to 1963 when "Fox News and Fox Movietone News camera crews covered the people and events of the country and, indeed, the world." Some of the clips include the 3rd Anniversary of Tuskegee Army Airfield, Josephine Baker in the Netherlands, and Jack Johnson's Jazz Band. Features a text only version. From University Libraries, University of South Carolina.

African American History Month
Collection of links to material in honor of African American History month in February. Includes links to collections, images, and audio and video sources for individuals such as Carter G. Woodson ("father" of African American History Month) and athlete Althea Gibson; and topics such as performing arts, civil rights, and slavery. From the Library of Congress.

The Black Past
This site provides "reference materials to the general public on six centuries of African American history. It includes an online encyclopedia of hundreds of famous and lesser known figures in African America, full text primary documents and major speeches of black activists and leaders from the 18th Century to the present." Searchable, or browse encyclopedia articles about people, places, churches, events, and organizations. Directed by an African American history professor at the University of Washington.

The Public Broadcasting System
hosts an excellent companion site to its "Africans in America" series. There are special sections devoted to
Each section is accompanied with a teachers guide.

The History of Jim Crow
" is an educator's site that presents teachers with new historical resources and teaching ideas on one of the most shameful periods in American history, an era of segregation, violence, and disfranchisement of African Americans that tore at the very fabric of the nation." Winner of the Golden and Platinum Web Awards.

Women’s History

4000 Years of Women in Science
This site includes biographical information on about 125 women astronomers, physicists, mathematicians, chemists, natural philosophers, inventors, writers, etc. The information ranges from just the type of science and birth and death dates to several paragraphs with photo and links.

Women and Social Movements in the United States, 1600-2000
A searchable collection of "primary documents related to women and social movements in the United States between1600-2000. It is organized around editorial projects" each of which "poses a question and provides 15-20 documents that address the question." They address specific topics, such as Lucretia Mott's Reform Network; Booker T. Washington, W.E.B. DuBois, and Woman Suffrage, 1900-1915; Workers and Allies in the New York City Shirtwaist Strike, 1909-1910; Women's Peace Mission to European Capitals, 1915; Women and the Lawrence Textile Strike, 1912; Women Suffragists; Pacifism vs. Patriotism in Women's Organizations in the 1920s, and more. Related links are provided. While the site could be more screen-reader friendly, the page on
Women in Social Movement’s Teacher’s Corner
is especially useful, containing lesson plans and related classroom ideas.

African American Women Writers of the 19th Century
This is a collection of works providing "access to the thought, perspectives and creative abilities of black women as captured in books and pamphlets published prior to 1920." The collection is searchable by author, title and genre. The latter includes fiction, poetry, biography, autobiography, and essays. "Each individual title as well as the entire database can be searched to determine what these women had to say about family, religion, slavery or any other subject of interest to the researcher." The site includes an RSS feed as well as audio and video.

Women of the Century: 100 Years of American Heroes
An annotated list of more than four dozen phenomenal American women of the twentieth century "who left an indelible mark on our nation." Browse decade by decade or in categories of activists, reformers, politics and government, arts, media, space and science, sports, and exploration. The site could be more accessible but is well suited for teachers or students. A site.

American Women Home Page
This site "contains a slightly expanded and fully searchable version of the print publication 'American Women: A Library of Congress Guide for the Study of Women's History and Culture in the United States' with added illustrations and links to existing digitized material located throughout the Library of Congress Web site." Includes books, maps, manuscripts, music, images, and other research materials. Browsable and searchable. While much of the material is highly visual, the quality of the collection, nonetheless, merits consideration.

The Internet Women’s History Source Book
This is an excellent, well-organized source from Fordham University comprised of primary and secondary documents on the topic.

Encyclopedia Britannica's Guide to Women's History
An encyclopedia exploring the history, social conditions, and contributions of women in the United States from the 1600s to the present. There are biographies covering notable women in all spheres of activity and subject-based articles covering organizations, legal cases and concepts, events, and institutions. The Media Gallery has video and audio clips which contain some of the primary documents important in American women's history. A bibliography of recommended reading materials and a study guide for use by teachers are also included. The site is also noteworthy for its multicultural focus.

Women's History Month celebrates Women's History Month and International Women's Day (March 8) by featuring articles on the women's history movement and on women's current status in politics, business, the arts, and other fields. There is a categorical list of notable women and reference articles and links on awards, achievements, education, the labor force, motherhood, health, crime statistics, and organizations. There are also some puzzles, trivia games, and other "fun stuff."

Documents from the Women's Liberation Movement
Texts and images of articles, pamphlets, flyers, and booklets published from 1969 to 1974 that focus specifically on the early radical origins of this movement in the United States. Includes classics such as Pat Menardi's Politics of Housework, Notes from the First Year, the Radicalesbians' Woman Indentified Woman and early works from Steinem, Bunch, Firestone, Alpert, and Freeman. Searchable and browsable.

From the Special Collections Library, Duke University.

Women’s History Month
Compilation of federal government resources celebrating Women's History Month, observed in March. Features exhibitions, biographies, articles and stories, lesson plans and student activities, and other material about women's history.

Jewish Women: A Comprehensive Historical Encyclopedia
First published as a CD-ROM in 2006, this resource is now available online with tools to facilitate sharing information about Jewish women from around the world. It features "approximately 2,000 carefully researched, written, and edited articles" depicting Jewish women from biblical times to the present. Browse by keyword, country, or time period. Also includes a glossary. The editors are American and Israeli university professors. From the Jewish Women's Archive (JWA).

Voices of Feminism Oral History Project
This project "documents the persistence and diversity of organizing for women in the United States in the latter half of the 20th century. Narrators include labor, peace, and anti-racism activists; artists and writers; lesbian rights advocates; grassroots anti-violence and anti-poverty organizers; women of color; and reproductive justice leaders." Features biographical sketches and abstracts of interviews for each narrator, and transcripts of all but a few of the interviews. From the Sophia Smith Collection, Smith College.

Women in History
Profiles of famous American women, such as Louisa May Alcott, Clara Barton, Rachel Carson, Isadora Duncan, Sally Hemings, Dolley Madison, Annie Oakley, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Harriet Tubman, and Laura Ingalls Wilder. Profiles vary in amount of information provided about the individual. A good starting point for ideas for school paper topics, as this listing includes women from a variety of time periods, professions, and fields of accomplishment. From Lakewood Public Library, Ohio.

Womens Rights/History
Compilation of lesson plans concerning women's rights and women's history, including topics such as women aviators, first ladies, voting rights for women, women in the U.S. Civil War, quilting, and Charlotte Perkins Gilman's short story "The Yellow Wall-paper." A joint project of the National Endowment for the Humanities and other organizations.

World History

British Civil Wars, Commonwealth and Protectorate 1638-60
The "War of the Three Kingdoms" involved Scotland, Ireland, England, and Wales. It "laid the foundations of the modern British constitution and underlies many of the political tensions in today's United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland." Find timelines, interactive biographies, a military history (with individual battles and sieges), and annotated Web links. Searchable.

Portal to Asian Internet Resources
Committed to directing users to Asian area content in the humanities and social sciences, the Portal to Asian Internet Resources (PAIR) is supported by an impressive complement of area studies scholars, bibliographers and subject selectors based at the libraries of the University of Wisconsin, the University of Minnesota and the Ohio State University. PAIR offers scholars, students and the interested public more than six thousand professionally selected, cataloged and annotated online resources within 25 different subtopic areas. The site is more accessible than might appear at first glance and is definitely worth any additional effort.

Medieval Sites on the Web>
Collection to links to websites "primarily for Western Medieval subjects, with a few early Middle Ages and Byzantine sites." Sites are organized by topic such as online journals, religion and philosophy, witchcraft, women, literature, music, and more. From an art history teacher and enthusiast.

Imperial War Museum Collections Online
Searchable database of film and video material, sound recordings and oral history, documents, and other items from the Imperial War Museum (London, England) collections. Includes separate search options for the documents, sound, and film collections. "If you want to browse there are short essays on major historical themes which lead you to selected highlights from all the collections."

BBC – Egyptian History
Explores ancient Egyptian history through articles, images, and interactive media. Articles include The Decipherment of Hieroglyphs and Careers for Women in Ancient Egypt. Features embalming and pyramid building games, a timeline (covering kingdoms, pharaohs, dynasties, and main events), and image galleries. From the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC). Text only version available.

Tudor England: 1485 to 1603
Biographical and historical information on Tudor monarchs, including Henry VII, Henry VIII and his six wives, Edward VI, Jane I (Lady Jane Grey), Mary I, and Elizabeth I; Tudor relatives; and other citizens. Includes primary sources (including letters written by Henry VIII's wives), life in Tudor England, genealogy, bibliography, and flexography. Frequently updated with new material. From a hobbyist.

Medieval Source Book
Fordham University hosts this excellent site comprised of primary and copy-permitted sources on the topic.

World History Index and History Central Catalogue
This is an index of staggering proportion on European history. It is primarily intended for professional historians and history students. It covers topics both major and minor and is maintained by a group of specialists in their fields.

The Labyrinth, from Georgetown University, offers a profusion of information, primary as well as secondary, on medieval studies. Information may be found in French, Iberian, Italian, Latin, and Middle English and Old English. Monographs, journals, and bibliographies are also available. Topics range from archaeology to science. The site may be browsed or searched. It is a high-quality one-stop shop on the subject.

This site contains over 400 separate historical articles and descriptions of approximately 4,000 world events, with an emphasis on English history. Material is searchable or browsable by time period, topic, and location. Also includes timelines and an online game where visitors can pit their historical knowledge against that of other competitors. Part of the National Grid for Learning, Great Britain. The beginning of the home page may lead the visitor to believe the site is far more inaccessible than it actually is.

Jewish Internet Guide
A searchable, browsable portal to Internet resources related to Judaism. Covers academic Jewish studies, Hebrew, history, Israel, kosher food, and many other topics. Companion to a book by the same title.

Introductory material designed for children about the history and culture of Europe, Asia, and Africa before 1500. Topics include North America, China, India, west Asia, Greece, Egypt, Africa, Rome, Islam, Germany, and the Middle Ages. Also includes materials for teachers. Kidipede began as a "community service learning project" and is organized and run by a history professor at Portland State University.

A Teacher's Guide to the Holocaust
An overview of the people and events of the Holocaust through photographs, documents, art, music, movies, and literature. Includes resources for teachers and suggested classroom activities.

European History
This site is a gateway to other pages about various aspects of European history ranging from ancient Greece and the French Revolution to theatre and witchcraft. You will also find links to the history of culture, war, religion, industry, as well as particular countries and peoples.

Medieval History - Life in the Middle Ages and Renaissance
This site is more informal and less intimidating than some other, more academic sites. Nonetheless, you will find articles, discussion lists, links to numerous Blogs, and a RSS feed.

MacroHistory: prehistory to the 21st century
This is an exhaustive compendium of information on history from 60,000 BCE to the present. The site also contains a number of useful summaries of important works covering various aspects of world history. Browsable but not searchable.

Africa: History
The site, from the University of Pennsylvania, provides an excellent list of annotated links on African history and culture.

Internet Ancient History Sourcebook:
"A 'classroom usable' sourcebook of copy-permitted material for Ancient history and civilization courses. The emphasis is on access to primary sources for educational purposes. The site focuses on electronic texts." This site covers a wide range of ancient civilizations beginning with human origins and including Ancient Greece, the Near East, the Roman Empire, and the origins of Christianity.

Internet East Asian History Sourcebook
This sourcebook covers primary source materials for researching the history of China, Japan, and Korea from ancient to modern times.

Internet African History Sourcebook
Topics include Egypt, Greek and Roman Africa, Africa and Islam, African societies, the impact of slavery, European imperialism, nationalism, modern Africa, and more.

Internet Modern History Sourcebook
With thousands of sources, major divisions include: the Reformation, everyday life, the early modern world, Enlightenment, the French Revolution, Romanticism, the 19th century, Imperialism, as well as links to other important trends in thought and culture. Both browsable and searchable, the Internet Modern History Sourcebook has been used by a number of faculty in their classes.

Ancient Greece for Kids
Targeted for younger students, this site covers Greek history, philosophy, art, religion, clothing, people, and more in a style intended for younger visitors.

Axis History Factbook:
This site focuses on Germany and its allies during WWII. It contains information on military and political organizations, collaboration, the holocaust, statistics, names and membership of various organizations, and some biographical information.

An Annotated List of Reference Websites in Classical and Medieval History
Hosted by the Library of Congress, this site provides an excellent list of annotated sites in classical and medieval history.

British History from the British National Archives
Excellent educational resources from the British perspective on British history. Includes information on the
Medieval Period, 1066-1485
Early Modern Period, 1485-1750
Industry and Empire, 1750-1850
Victorians, 1850-1901
Early 20th Century
Interwar Period, 1918-1939
Second World War, 1939-1945
Postwar to the Present

UCLA Encyclopedia of Egyptology
Egyptology has as its object of study the history, practices, and conceptual categories of a culture that was remarkably prolific in terms of written texts, art, architecture, and other forms of material culture. The knowledge of Egyptologists, archaeologists, linguists, geologists, and all other professionals who are involved in research related to Ancient Egypt reflect the interdisciplinary approach that is needed to make sense of such a wealth of information. The peer-reviewed articles of this site are written by the world's leading scholars. Topics include scarabs, Osiris and the deceased, famine, and cordage production. Search, or browse papers by year. The articles are in English, each with an abstract in Arabic. From the Department of Near Eastern Languages and Cultures, University of California, Los Angeles.

Black Europeans
Series of features on black Europeans, including Alexander Pushkin, Alexandre Dumas, George Polgreen Bridgetower, Samuel -Taylor-Coleridge, and John Archer. Individual sections include essays, images, and sound samples. Also provides and introduction about black Europeans, noting that in recent years there has been "a new drive to explore and understand the hidden or ignored contribution of people of African descent to the mainstream of European culture and society." From the British Library.

The Ancient Americas
This exhibition "takes you on a journey through 13,000 years of human ingenuity and achievement in the western hemisphere, where hundreds of diverse societies thrived long before the arrival of Europeans." Features an exhibition overview, a FAQ about culture and the Americas, essays (about topics such as the Ice Age), interactive features, li nks to related collections, educational resources (including a glossary and reading materials), and more. From the Field Museum.

The Roman Empire in the First Century
Companion website to a documentary series about the Roman Empire, providing "a detailed look at the emperors of the time as well as other important historical figures . . . [and] the daily life of ancient Romans." Features transcripts from the series, interviews, a timeline, an Augustan family tree (showing the relationships between Julius Caesar, Claudius, Caligula, Nero, and others), games and activities, video clips, lessons plans, and more. From Public Broadcasting Services.

World History for Us All
This website provides "a powerful, innovative model curriculum for teaching world history in middle and high schools." Features an overview of the integrative approach to world history, lesson plans arranged by "Big Eras," a glossary, and links to related websites. Some portions in development. A project of San Diego State University in cooperation with the National Center for History in the Schools at the University of California, Los Angeles.

Greco-Persian Wars: Battle of Thermopylae » HistoryNet
This article describes the battle of Thermopylae, fought in 480 B.C. by an alliance of Greek city-states and the invading Persian Empire. "After the Battle of Thermopylae, Persian King Xerxes secretly buried most of the Greek dead and all but 1,000 of his own slain, in order to conceal from his army just how few men had held up his progress for so long." From a publisher of history magazines.

The Boer War
History from British perspective of the South African War, "sometimes called the Boer War or Anglo-Boer War . . . [which was] fought between Britain and the self-governing Afrikaner (Boer) colonies of the South African Republic (the Transvaal) and the Orange Free State." Provides an overview of the war, which started in 1899, and links to related websites. From the U.K. National Archives.

Germany and Europe, 1871-1945
Overview of political history in Germany from the foundation of the German Empire in 1871 through the World Wars. Topics include the road to national unification, the Bismarckian empire, the Weimer Republic and the Treaty of Versailles, the rise of Nazis and Hitler, a comparison between national socialism and fascism in Mussolini's Italy, and more. Includes links to primary source documents. From a history professor at Colby College in Maine.

Kings and Queens of England Since 1603
Discusses British monarchs since 1603, when the English and Scottish crowns were united. Include profiles of the Stuarts (such as James I), the Hanoverians (such as George III and Victoria), Saxe-Coburg-Gotha (Edward VII), and the current House of Windsor. Also includes a family tree for Elizabeth II that shows her relationship to other European monarchs. Part of the official website of the British monarchy.

Medieval Sites on the Web
Collection to links to websites "primarily for Western Medieval subjects, with a few Late Antique and Byzantine sites." Sites are organized by topic such as online journals, religion and philosophy, history, witchcraft, women, literature, music, and more.

Ancient and Classical Cultures
Collection of links to websites about ancient cultures around the world. Includes sites about Africa, Asia Minor, Aztecs, Celts, China, Egyptians, Greeks, Hebrews, Incas, India, Inuits, Muslims, Mongols, Persians, Romans, Viking, and wonders of the ancient world. From the Multnomah County Library, Oregon.

Nazi Propaganda
Website companion to the 2009 exhibition "State of Deception: The Power of Nazi Propaganda," which "reveals how the Nazi Party used modern techniques as well as new technologies and carefully crafted messages to sway millions with its vision for a new Germany." Includes a timeline, information about the themes used in Nazi propaganda, a gallery of propaganda examples, and resources for further study. From the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum.

The First World War: A Multi-media History
The title of the site is a bit misleading. While there is a good deal of material that is visual, there is, nonetheless, much that is of value to the visually impaired visitor: historical background, narratives, time lines, biographies, vintage audio, etc.

History for Kids
This "website is packed with articles, worksheets and even a quiz on each section. You will [also] find cool games, videos, and worksheets on many historical events." There are separate sections devoted to ancient Egyptian, Greek, and Roman history as well as the middle ages, Asian history, and ancient China. Also has a section on American history. Created by Stephen Byrne, a twelve year-old, and his father.

Primary Documents

The Debates in the Federal Convention of 1787
James Madison earned the sobriquet "Father of the Constitution" for his role in crafting the document adopted in 1787. This site from the Constitution Society provides an annotated version of Madison's journal, which is a more complete documenting of the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia than the official record. The editor notes corrections or changes to the transcribed text.

Archiving Early America
Whether you’re looking for a stimulating discussion about America’s Colonial Era or want to relive Major George Washington’s historic trip to the Ohio Valley when he was only 21 years of age, is the place to visit. While the primary attraction of the site is copies of primary documents which, unfortunately, are inaccessible to a screen reader, you can find biographical and general historical material of the period which is accessible. The site also features music of the period. Searchable.

Marxists Internet Archive
"Read brief biographies of and articles by famous Marxist leaders from around the world, including Marx, Engels, Eugene V. Debs, Lenin, Stalin, Mao Zedong, Trotsky, and others. There are also general sections on Marxist history."

The Internet Archive of Texts and Documents
The Internet Archive of Texts and Documents is a creation of faculty and students in the History Department of Hanover College. The principal goal of the Archive is to make primary texts and secondary sources on the internet available to students and faculty for use in history and humanity classes. The History Department plans to update the current pages and add more pages as time permits.

Making of America
The Making of America is a digital library of primary sources in American social history from the antebellum period through Reconstruction. The collection focuses on education, psychology, American history, sociology, religion, and science and technology. The collection currently contains approximately 8,500 books and 50,000 journal articles with nineteenth century imprints. Because the materials have been scanned, they are inaccessible to screen readers, but, if you are using a CCTV or are otherwise able to read the screen, this is an excellent source.

Primary Documents in American History
The Library of Congress is home to many of the most important documents in American history. This Web site provides links to materials digitized from the collections of the Library of Congress. For each item on these lists there is a page with background information about the document, a list of links to digital materials concerning that document from the Library's site and elsewhere, and bibliographies both for general readers and for younger readers. While the digitized documents are completely inaccessible without vision, supporting information is so useful that the site is still valuable. Alternatively, the Library also features an excellent portion of the site
For teachers
which is intended to help classroom teachers use primary source materials in their classes. You will find music, speeches, documents as well as lesson plans and more.

Documents Related to the History of International Relations, prior to 1914
Electronic texts connected with history, war, international relations, and diplomacy. The scope ranges from ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia to the early twentieth century. You will also find links to World War I resources and international relations theory.

Historical Text Archive
The HTA publishes high quality articles, books, essays, documents, historical photos, and links, screened for content, for a broad range of historical subjects. It was founded in 1990 and is one of the oldest history sites on the Internet. This site is dynamic with regular additions to its contents. While a good deal of the site is not very accessible, the quality of what is accessible makes it more than worthwhile.

UC Berkeley Library Social Activism Sound Recording Project: Anti-Vietnam War Protests in the San Francisco Bay Area
An excellent and thorough chronology of the Vietnam War (1960-1975), highlighting major events and associated political activism, with an emphasis on the UC Berkeley campus. Contains audio and video of protests, debates, interviews, photographs, and links to related resources. Requires Reel Player, which may be downloaded from the site. Also features a chronology of notable post-war events. Includes a bibliography. Note: newspaper articles available only to the UC Berkeley community. From the Media Resources Center, University of California, Berkeley.

The Pentagon Papers Case
Documents and audio related to the June 1971 "Pentagon Papers" case, in which the Supreme Court lifted restraints that had been issued by the U.S. government against The New York Times for its publication of stories about a secret government study on the Vietnam War. Features audio and transcripts of Nixon White House conversations, excerpts from memoirs, and Supreme Court briefs, evidence, and opinions. You will need to download Reel Audio Player to listen to the White House tapes. From the National Security Archive at George Washington University.

Recorded Sound Reference Center
Website for this center that "provides access to the commercial and archival audio holdings of the Library of Congress." Includes an online catalog of holdings, tips for preserving sound recordings, collection highlights, links to related Library of Congress material, and guides and reference aids (including a radio format/genre terms guide for catalogers). From the Motion Picture, Broadcasting and Recorded Sound Division of the Library of Congress.

Electronic Research Collection of the Department of State
The Electronic Research Collection (ERC) is a partnership between the United States Department of State and the Federal Depository Library at the Richard J. Daley Library, University of Illinois at Chicago. The Government Printing Office, which is responsible for the national system of federal depository libraries, officially recognizes this unique partnership as the first electronic partnership agreement between an executive agency and a depository library. This partnership began in 1994. ERC is responsible for electronically archived information produced by the State Department. You can find information on defense, foreign trade, counter-terrorism, and more. For more current information on the Department of State, visit the
Department of State Home Page

The American Presidency Project
This is the only website that contains a searchable database of tens of thousands of documents from U.S. presidents from 1789 to the present. Includes inaugural addresses, press briefings, signing statements, and debates. Also features data on topics such as popularity and number of public appearances, election results back to 1828, and an archive of audio and video clips. A collaboration between John Woolley and Gerhard Peters at the University of California, Santa Barbara.

The Foreign Relations of the United States, 1961-63: The Cuban Missile Crisis
This volume of the federal government publication Foreign Relations of the United States, contains the text of meeting summaries, briefing records, memoranda, and other material about the 1962-63 Cuban Missile Crisis and aftermath. Most documents are from U.S. agencies; includes some correspondence received from the Soviet Union during this conflict. Provides abbreviations and a list of people involved. Because the presentation of the original texts is quite busy for a screen-reader, reading it can be annoying; however, it is accessible. From the U.S. Department of State.

Alcove 9: An Annotated List of Reference Websites
An outstanding list of annotated history web sites compiled by humanities librarians at the Library of Congress. Of special interest are the following:

For Teachers
While this area of the Library of Congress violates the standards of accessibility we have established for this site, it is so outstanding and offers so much of value for teachers that we have made an exception and included it here. The Library presents a wide variety of primary documents specifically selected and designed for classroom instruction. For example, students can read newspapers, poetry, and official documents and listen to webcasts and oral history interviews regarding the Japanese-American internment in World War II as well as the Chinese experience in California from 1850-1925. Includes lesson plans.

Audio and Video Sources

History and Politics Out Loud
This site is a collection of audio materials capturing significant political and historical events and personalities of the twentieth century. The materials range from formal addresses delivered in public settings to private telephone conversations conducted from the innermost recesses of the White House. Includes speeches by Lyndon B. Johnson to the Warren Commission, John F. Kennedy speaking about the Cuban Missile Crisis, tapes from the Nixon/Watergate scandal, and Bill Clinton's denials of his affair with Monica Lewinsky.

Talking History: Aural History Productions
This center aims to "provide teachers, students, researchers, and the general public with as broad and outstanding collection of audio documentaries, speeches, debates, oral histories, conference sessions, commentaries, archival audio sources, and other aural history resources." Offers a weekly Internet broadcast (focusing on all aspects of history) and program archives (browsable by date, and searchable). From the University at Albany, State University of New York.

Historical Voices
The purpose of Historical Voices is to create a significant, fully searchable online database of spoken word collections spanning the 20th century – the first large-scale repository of its kind. Historical Voices will both provide storage for these digital holdings and display public galleries that cover a variety of interests and topics. Of special interest on this site is the
page with lesson plans and examples of how to integrate the audible materials into classes.

Online Documentaries
An excellent site providing access to a large number of professionally done documentaries is now available. Browse through a variety of programs by categories such as Anthropology, Environment, and Religion to find one you want to watch online free. Click the title and watch it; it's that simple. This isn't just somebody's attempts at filmmaking—this is a collection of interesting and sometimes well-known documentaries such as the Modern Marvels series from the History Channel, biographies on figures such as Malcolm X and Aristotle, and the Planet Earth series. There is a variety of foreign documentaries as well for the multilingual viewer. Even if you cannot see the video, there is still much of use.

Google Videos
Google now provides access to an extensive list of videos. While many have little or no educational value, there are also a large number of excellent, professionally produced items of use. The collection not only has offering from The United States but also from Australia, Canada, Germany, Spain, France, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, and the United Kingdom. Searchable.

Oral History Program - Veterans Remember
An oral history project of the Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library which is divided into the nation's wars, starting with World War II, through Korea, Vietnam, the Gulf War, and the War on Terrorism. It also includes the Cold War. The current focus is on the Korean War, as that war is too often ignored, and very poorly understood. Fifty years removed from the war, oral historians are racing the clock. The same is even more true of the World War II generation, although yeoman's work has already been done on that generation. This is all to explain why you will not find a lot on Vietnam and beyond. The Library will eventually turn its attention to these, but time and resources are very limited. Find audio, written oral history abstracts, and photos for dozens of interviews throughout the site.

Nevada Test Site Oral History Project
Website for a "comprehensive program dedicated to documenting, preserving and disseminating the remembered past of persons affiliated with and affected by the Nevada Test Site during the era of Cold War nuclear testing." Features a chronology of a "half century of nuclear weapons development, use and testing from the Manhattan Project (1942) through the testing moratorium (1992)," and transcripts and clips from interviews. Winner of the National Council on Public History Award. From the University of Nevada, Las Vegas.

Newsfilm Online
"Hours of [British] television news and cinema newsreels, taken from the huge collection of the ITN/Reuters archive. Available online in high quality format for teaching, learning and research." Video clips cover 1920s to the present and are searchable or browsable by decade or by topic such as conflicts, disasters, lifestyle, science and technology, sports, and weather. Includes links to related sites. From the British Universities Film & Video Council.

After the Day of Infamy: 'Man-on-the-Street' Interviews Following the Attack on Pearl Harbor
Listen to recordings and read transcripts of interviews representing "approximately twelve hours of opinions recorded in the days and months following the bombing of Pearl Harbor from more than two hundred individuals in cities and towns across the United States." Searchable, and browsable by name, subject, title, or geographic location. You will likely need to download special software to listen to the recordings, however, this is not difficult. From the American Memory Project of the Library of Congress.

Presidential Recordings Program
"Between 1940 and 1973, six American presidents from both political parties secretly recorded just under 5,000 hours of their meetings and telephone conversations. Through a combination of historical research and annotated transcripts the Miller Center of the University of Virginia Presidential Recordings Program aims to make these remarkable historical sources more accessible to scholars, teachers, students, and the public. You can both listen to the actual recordings or read the transcripts."

Digital History
While this site contains a great deal of material that is visual and is less than screen-reader friendly, some portions are, nonetheless, of interest. You will need Reel Player to access the page on
which contains lectures on history by leading professionals in the field.

First World War: Vintage Audio and Video
Considering the state of the technology, this is a surprisingly extensive collection of audio and video material of the period of World War I. Much of it is music. Unfortunately, whether music or speeches, the recordings reflect the primitive technology of the time. Transcripts, however, accompany some of the offerings.

Conversations with History
"In these lively and unedited video interviews, distinguished men and women from all over the world talk about their lives and their work. Guests include diplomats, statesmen, and soldiers; economists and political analysts; scientists and historians; writers and foreign correspondents; activists and artists. The interviews span the globe and include discussion of political, economic, military, legal, cultural, and social issues shaping our world. At the heart of each interview is a focus on individuals and ideas that make a difference." At present, there are over 500 interviews.

References and Bibliographies

Best of History Web Sites
This site is a portal created for history teachers, students, and general history enthusiasts. Site contains annotated links to over 1000 history web sites as well as links to hundreds of quality K-12 history lesson plans, history teacher guides, history activities, history games, history quizzes, and more throughout its pages.

The Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History
Founded in 1994, the Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History promotes the study and love of American history. The Institute serves teachers, students, scholars, and the general public. It helps create history-centered schools, organizes seminars and programs for educators, produces print and electronic publications and traveling exhibitions, sponsors lectures by eminent historians, and administers a History Teacher of the Year Award in every state through its partnership with Preserve America.

Guide to African American Documentary Resources
A highly selective collection of over 80 annotated links to sites "relating to African American history," including academic, government, and other sites, and digitization projects. Searchable and browsable. Includes a plain-text version. From the Cornell University Library.

African American Women's History
A directory of sites about "the history of black women in America, from slavery through Reconstruction, Harlem Renaissance and civil rights." It includes biographies of notable and little-known African American women, organization and club memberships, participation in events and movements, educational and political activities, and more. There is also a list of "white women who worked for racial justice and the rights of African Americans."

History: Lesson Plans
From the Library of Congress, this site provides numerous and detailed lesson plans on history – ancient, American, European, and more. Quite accessible.

Southern Oral History Project
"The Southern Oral History Program performs the vital task of recording and preserving research interviews for future generations." Its website features audio and some transcripts of selected interviews with people such as Jimmy Carter, Bill Clinton, and Albert Gore, Sr., although some of the audio formats are not as accessible as on some other sites. Also includes descriptions of recent projects. The SOHP is a component of the University of North Carolina (UNC) Center for the Study of the American South.

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